The best guide to style is to be found in recent issues of the Journal itself and authors are encouraged to emulate the style and format of the published articles whilst adhering to the guidelines in this note.

The Committee wishes to encourage the widest possible range of papers and contributors, and to that end the aim is to suggest guidelines so that the Journal presents itself as an entity but without stifling individual style. Hertfordshire Archaeology tries to balance scholarly rigour while remaining accessible to members of the societies who support publication, mainly graduates of many fields. Particularly dull reportage, abstruse and unexplained technical discussion, untranslated/untranscribed foreign text or palaeography, are to be avoided.

The Text

Please keep the structure of the text simple, with the minimum number of headings and subheadings. So that the structure can be clearly distinguished, it would be helpful if headings were followed by a bracketed letter to denote the position of the heading within the paper’s structure:
Phases 1 and 2: Iron Age and Roman burials (A)
   Phase 1: Iron Age (B)
      Inhumation (C)
      Cremation (C)
         Pyre bases (D)
   Phase 2: Roman (B)
      Inhumation (C)
      Cremation (C)
The above has been laid out to illustrate the true position of the headings whereas the headings in the draft text would be flush with the left margin. In most instances, a three tier structure would suffice; the fewer the better.

Full stops should not be used at the end of headings and it is preferable not to refer to illustrations within headings, although it may be unavoidable at second and third level.

Keep brackets to a minimum within the text. If possible re-construct text to make it possible to use commas. Retain brackets for references e.g. (see above), (see Fig.16), (Bradley 1986, p19, fig. 8), etc. Follow a close of bracket with a comma or full stop. When referring to a context number in archaeological fieldwork reports, always enclose within a square bracket e.g. [163].

Reference should be made to all the illustrations in sequence. The word Figure should be spelt in full when used directly in a sentence i.e. ‘Figure 8 shows…’, but abbreviated when within parentheses. ‘As can be seen (Fig. 8)…’.

Please note the useful convention of Fig. when it refers to a figure within the paper, but lower case fig., when reference is to another report; this reduces confusion on the part of the editor and readers.

It is recommended that a similar convention be used for Section, Plate, Graph, Table etc.

Avoid referring to detail within the paper by page number as the actual page in the journal will change up to the printing date.

Years are usually reduced to the shortest pronounceable form: 1985-6, 1914-18, 1827-1901. Dates BC should always be given in full to avoid ambiguity, e.g. 520 BC-123 BC. Please note the difference between BC and AD for dates: 52 BC, AD 43. Do not use abbreviations such as C18; centuries should be written in full: eighteenth century.

Tables should not appear ‘congested’, two tables may be preferable to one overcrowded table. Indicate clearly where the Tables should be located within the text. Note that tables must fit either one or two column widths on the printed page. See below.

Charts or graphs must be of very high quality and are ideally produced by laser or ink-jet printing or India ink on vellum. Submission of original artwork is preferred as there are wide variations in scanning quality. If figures are supplied in electronic format, use .tif format scanned at 1200 dpi. The latter makes for large files and you may wish to consult the Editorial Co-ordinator.

If you wish to emulate the look of the published text, use 10 pt Garamond font for the body of the text with a (single) column width of 84 mm. The Journal uses two columns by 250 mm high with 4 mm between the columns.

Bibliography and References

References in the text should be indicated by sequentially numbered superscripts with the details at the end of the paper. Refer to a recent edition for style and format.

For consistency, it is recommended that the Council for British Archaeology (CBA) format is adopted.

However, it may still be confusing so please provide full entries, including the following details. The first three listed should always appear, the remainder as applicable.

   Surname and initials or originating source
   Date of publication/reference
   Title of paper and/or publication (if latter, in italics)
   Journal Title (in italics)
   Volume number (bold)
   Series number (bold)
   Page numbers spanned by paper or referred to

   Munchausen, B V 1998 Evidence for Pyramids in North Herts.
Journal of Improbable Archaeology 12, 25-31
   Bamford, J C 2002 The Trowel to End All Trowels.
Groundworks Press, Uttoxeter, 238-9
   Dumm, T and Dee, T 1979 ‘The Rattle of Battle’
in Carol, L and Dodgson, C (Eds) Internecine Conflicts in Early
Modern Sussex
. Guerre Bros.: Lewes, 23-4 & 56

If you are not sure about abbreviations, the Editor will help at the editorial stage. Please note, page format accommodates endnotes but footnotes will be treated as references.


Illustrations are important components of any paper, and therefore much consideration is required in their composition and layout. Illustrations should be presented ready for publication. If this is not possible, please get in touch with the Editor or Editorial Co-ordinator.

Illustrations must be drawn to a multiple of the final publication format, and if possible, provided in a reduced format as a photographic or scanned image. If this is not possible, please contact the Editor.

In A4 format, the maximum illustration size is 248 × 170 mm. The text is laid out in two columns but a half width illustration is 84 mm due to the margin between the two columns of text. At all times, consideration must be given to the need to maximise the use of space in the layout.

Pull-outs should only be used when absolutely essential and after discussion with the Editor. Pull-out dimensions are difficult to gauge as each situation will be different but a useful guideline would be an illustration length of 290 mm or 320 mm. Very careful thought should be given to size and scale of drawing, especially maps and plans before composing the paper.

As a general guide to line (pen) sizes, if the drawing is to be reduced by 2× the minimum line width should be 0.25 mm, for a 3× reduction, 0.35 mm, and for a 4× reduction, 0.5 mm.

As a check list for illustrations, please ensure that each of the following has been considered:
   National Grid
   Plans when reduced are to a logical scale
   Figure numbers do not appear on plans

   One plan per figure number

Scales: The format that should be followed stems from the need to calculate distances. Using dividers, the right-hand pointer can be positioned on the maximum number of whole units with the left counting the fractions. Hence zero appears part way along with the smaller units to the left.

Metric scales and units are required.

North Signs: Any simple and consistent style can be used in reports. North should preferably point to top of page and be consistent from plan to plan.

Artefact Drawings

A look at other reports will show a variety of techniques. The method you adopt is your choice but for overall consistency the following should be considered with scales indicated on drawing and or by figure caption.

Sections of objects are shown to the right side of the object and, apart from glass appearing in outline and iron and bronze being blacked, all objects are hatched using 45 degree lines. The location of the section must be indicated on the main drawing.

Shading is ALWAYS generated with the light from top left.

Views of objects are to be arranged in THIRD ANGLE projection, i.e. after the first view of an object is drawn, each subsequent view should appear adjacent to the side of the first view that it is depicting.

Photographs are to be kept to a minimum and must be essential to the text. Black and white or colour prints must be supplied, of high quality, on glazed paper of larger size than the final illustration, but taking full account of the page dimensions as discussed in relation to illustrations. Photographs will be reproduced in black and white in the published article. Coloured photographs in an article are possible but not encouraged due to production costs. Cover photographs are generally in colour and are selected from submissions by the Editorial Committee.

Further notes for illustrators

Technical Paper No.1 0: Preparation of Artwork for publication
 Association of Archaeological Illustrators and Surveyors
 Portway House
 South Portway Estate
 Old Sarum
 SP4 6EB


To avoid wasted work, please raise any queries with the Editorial Co-ordinator as soon as they arise.